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Aquaculture Articles  
Aquaculture Pond Cakes Trial Report
Conducted product trials for Aquaculture Pond Cakes at Nellore, Telangana, India. The trial results shows - increased levels of Dissolved Oxygen, decreased levels of Ammonia, improvement of plankton cell density and control of Vibrio sp. loads..........

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Nitrite problem in Freshwater Fish Aquaculture
Brown Blood Disease occurs in fish when water contains high nitrite concentrations. Nitrite enters the bloodstream through the gills and turns the blood to a chocolate-brown color. Hemoglobin, which transports oxygen in the blood, combines with nitrite to form Methemoglobin, which is incapable of oxygen transport..........

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Vibriosis in Shrimp Aquaculture
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector globally and is established itself as high protein resource to fulfill the food demand since the natural resources exhibits over exploitation. But, presently, the biggest problem faced by the aquaculture industry worldwide is diseases caused
due to various biological
..........

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Autotrophic vs. Heterotrophic Bacteria
There's a lot of confusion among aqua culturists about nitrifying bacteria. This is due in large part to the recent emergence of a wide variety of bacterial products claiming to be nitrifiers or nitrifying aids. The confusion results from the plethora of misinformation presented in advertisements and the aqua culturists general lack of knowledge about bacteria. Most of these products actually contain species of heterotrophic..........

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A Review on Shrimp Immunity and Disease Control
The sustainability and development of shrimp aquaculture are largely at stake as significant ecological and pathological problems are increasing in the vast majority of the shrimp producing countries. Prevention and control of diseases are now the priority for the durability of this industry..........

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KloSant
KloSant is a biosecurity product providing Chlorine Dioxide with suitable stabilizers for sanitizing water and contact surfaces of all multi-use containers, utensils, and equipment used in the aquaculture operations. KloSant is safe, effective with proven efficacy for potential use in aquaculture of both hatcheries and farms..........

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Outlook for Fish to 2020 – A Review
The supplies of fish in the world’s vast oceans once seemed inexhaustible. Not any more. In the past three decades, production and consumption of fish have risen so dramatically that the world’s wild fisheries may fall victim to their own success..........

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ViraNil
A VERSATILE BIOSECURITY FORMULA FOR CLEAN SHRIMP PRODUCTION..........

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Aquaculture Health Issues The Role of Biosecurity and Biotechnology
Disease outbreaks are being increasingly recognized as a significant constraint to aquaculture production, trade and are affecting economic development of the sector in many countries of the world. Disease is now considered to be the most limiting factor in the shrimp culture sub-sector. Some figures are available on direct economic losses which indicate the significance of the problem, although social and other related impact, such as trade and employment issues, drug use and environmental costs, has never been properly quantified. Estimates of economic losses suggest that developing countries in Asia lost at least Rs. 7000 crores (App. US $ 1.55 Billions) due to diseases in 1990 alone. Since then, losses have increased. Reports from China suggest losses in 1993 of Rs. 4500 crores (App. US $ 1.0 Billions) due to shrimp viral disease outbreaks. A 1995 estimate suggests that aquatic animal disease and environment-related problems may cause annual losses to aquaculture production in Asian countries have more than Rs. 13500 crores (App. US $ 3.0 Billions) per year. According to recent reports, global losses due to shrimp disease are more than Rs. 18000 crores (App. US $ 4.0 Billions) and the World Bank investing of Rs. 1240 crores (App. US $ 0.28 Billions) in shrimp disease research...........

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AQUACULTURE-DISINFECTANTS, SANITISERS AND FEED SUPPLEMENTS
Control of water quality is the key factor for a successful culture of aquatic animals like fish, prawn and shrimp. An open water system with sufficient good water quality may ensure successful aquaculture. However, if proper quality or sufficient quantity of water is not available, purification of water by eliminating polluting substances including toxic metabolites and growth inhibiting substances which originate mainly form fish or shrimp excretion and excessive feed is necessary. Under these lower water quality conditions there are chances for occurrence of mortalities by diseases due to viral, bacterial, protozoal, fungal pathogens. High populations of aquatic animals can be kept healthy under successful semi-closed and closed systems by maintaining proper sanitisation. The increased demand in water quality and quantity in shrimp and fish culture has resulted in a growing interest in using water sanitisers and disinfectants..........

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ADVANCED BIOTECHNOLOGY PROCESS ‘THE BIOREMEDIATION’
      TO RESTORE THE HEALTH OF AQUACULTURE POND ECOSYSTEM
Abstract
Aquaculture is concerned with ‘the propagation and rearing of aquatic organisms under complete human control involving manipulation of atleast one stage of an aquatic organism's life before harvest, in order to increase its production’. Fish catches from the marine environment have been steadily declining in many parts of the world due to over-exploitation and pollution, many people are turning to aquaculture to improve the food production and to contribute for economic development. Aquaculture, in India, has made encouraging progress in the past two decades producing significant quantities of food, income and employment. Aquaculture, particularly, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon culture, has extensively been practiced all along coastal regions of India. Increased production is being achieved by expansion of culture areas and the use of modern methods. This development of aquaculture in our country has led to not only severe disease problems but also alteration of the quality of our natural habitats through increased effluent discharges from aquaculture systems, which contains high quantities of hither-to-non-existent materials of both organic and inorganic forms. Since recent past it has been observed that the sustainable development of aquaculture sector can be achieved by adopting eco-friendly aquaculture practices by minimizing impact on the surrounding environment. To maintain healthy ecosystem in aquaculture ponds and hatchery tanks bioremediation is the best biotechnology process. Many researchers has been demonstrated that the pathogens can be eliminated or minimized through this bio-control process and hence can achieve good yield by maximizing both survival rate and growth rate and by minimizing the disease problems in aquaculture systems..........

Key words: Aquaculture; Over-exploitation; Pollution; Penaeus monodon; Sustainable development; Eco-friendly; Bioremediation; Probiotics; Enzymes; feed additives; Water Quality; Disease control.

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Aquaculture - Biosecurity
The importance of biosecurity and disinfection in aquaculture
The world's demands for high quality aquaculture products make control of diseases increasingly important. Good Biosecurity measures are vital to maintaining healthy animals, to reducing the risk of acquiring diseases in aquaculture facilities and to harvest high quality good yield..........

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A Review on Shrimp Immunity and Disease Control
The sustainability and development of shrimp aquaculture are largely at stake as significant ecological and pathological problems are increasing in the vast majority of the shrimp producing countries. Prevention and control of diseases are now the priority for the durability of this industry. Within the past decade, intensification of the shrimp production, based on progress in zootechnology, has increased but with little corresponding increase in scientific knowledge of shrimp physiology. Within this field, shrimp immunology is a key element in establishing strategies for the control of diseases in shrimp aquaculture..........

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Liming and its Principles in Aquaculture
The favorable influence of liming on fish/shrimp/prawn production in aquaculture ponds of soft and acid waters has been attributed to several of the effects on water quality. Liming increases the pH of bottom mud and thereby increases the availability of phosphorus added in fertilizer. Liming increases benthic production in fertilized ponds, apparently through increased nutrient availability and also liming increases microbial activity in mud through a favorable increase in pH..........

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Role and importance of pH in shrimp pond
pH is an expression of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in water and therefore serves as an indicator of acidity(H+) and basicity (OH-)/ alkalinity. It is one of the most important critical chemical parameter to consider, because it affects both the metabolic activities and other physiological processes of the aquatic organisms (i.e. biota) particularly shrimp in culture ponds. A certain range of pH (pH 7.4 – 8.5) should be maintained for desirable growth and production of the shrimp. Water is neutral at pH 7 and is acidic below pH 7 and basic
above pH 7
..........

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Importance of Plankton in Aquaculture and The Benefits of EcoPlankt-Aqua
Aquaculture organisms have to obtain all their nutritional requirements, except for part of the mineral requirements, through the food they consume. In nature, most of the organisms subsist on live food consisting of plants and animals obtained from the environment, but some do ingest and possible utilize detritus along with associated organisms. The initial source of food for many larval organisms is phytoplankton. This is probably associated with the size of the larvae at hatching. After a certain period of time the larvae of most species can be fed exclusively on zooplankton or a combination of plant and animal matter i.e. plankton. The term ‘plankton’ can be defined chiefly as microscopic drifting or floating organisms in the sea and fresh waters and may be having feasible floating devices. The plant components of all the plankton are the phytoplankton and are the primary producers for the entire aquatic body, whereas the animal components of the plankton are the zooplankton and are the primary consumers..........

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Use of Chemicals and Other Biological Agents in the Management Practices Associated
      with Aquaculture
Aquaculturists through out the world have used a wide array of chemicals and biological agents in an attempt to improve soil and water quality and thereby prevent or control different diseases. Some of these substances are thought to kill the disease causing agents or its potential carriers. Other substances are claimed to stimulate the immune system of culture organism and help them resist the disease. Substances that improve environmental conditions in ponds and thereby reduce stress also are thought to enhance the resistance of culture organism to disease. The agents used in this attempt may be applied to pond soil and water before culture organisms are stocked, applied to the water during the crop or added to the feed. The purpose of this review is to list the major chemicals and other substances used in aquaculture and comment on their food and environmental safety status and on the risks associated with handling them. The following groups of substances are be included: fertilizers, liming materials, oxidizing agents, antibiotics, plant extracts, coagulants, osmoregulators, algicides and herbicides, piscicides, water quality enhancers, probiotics and immunostimulants. The most common substances used in pond aquaculture are fertilizers and liming materials. Fertilizers are highly soluble and release nutrients that can cause eutrophication of pond waters. Some liming materials are caustic and can be hazardous to workers if proper precautions are not exercised. Liming materials do not cause environmental problems, and liming and inorganic fertilizer compounds do not present food safety concerns. These compounds or biological products quickly degrade or precipitate. They are not bioaccumulative and do not cause environmental perturbations in natural waters receiving aquaculture effluents. Most substances used in aquaculture to improve soil or water quality present little or no risk to food safety. The use of human wastes in aquaculture or the contamination of aquaculture systems with agricultural or industrial pollution could result in product contamination and food safety concerns...........

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Stress – Various Stress Factors in Shrimp Farming
Over the last twenty years commercial aquaculture has experienced spectacular growth. A significant component of the fish and shrimp based protein that humans consume, especially in first world countries, is now provided by these activities. Many species have gone from small-scale regional production to large-scale global production. Disease has substantially impacted the profitability of many of these industries and has been instrumental in shaping the evolution of the aquaculture industry. Shrimp farming has failed to realize its potential as a direct result of disease...........

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Water quality and Water quality Management in Aquaculture
Aquaculture can be defined as the high-density production of fish, shellfish and plant forms in a controlled environment. Stocking rates for high-density aquaculture are typically thousand fold greater than wild environments. Modern fish culturists employ both open and close systems to raise fish. Open systems, such as, the raceways (used in hatcheries of both finfish and shellfish and also in eel, trout culture) are characterized by rapid turnover of water. Closed systems are commonplace in pond culture of carps, catfishes, tilapia, sea bass, prawn and shrimp among others. Closed aquaculture systems do not have rapid turnover of water, but do not have a high surface to volume ratio facilitating exchange of gases, nutrients, energy etc. with the surroundings. Such closed system, intensified, high-density aquaculture forms the basis of concern...........

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