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Large Animals Articles  
BUFFERS AND ACID/BASE BALANCE IN DAIRY COWS
Dairy cows are unique among farm animals in the amount of acid produced in the digestive tract and found in commonly consumed feeds. Each time dairy cows approach the feed; they expose themselves to acid from several sources. This acid can be present in the feed when consumed, or can be generated from the feed during digestion. For example, corn silage ferments during storage, yielding a pH below 4. Its acid content is very high. Therefore, consumption of silage by the cow causes rumen pH to immediately drop. Moreover, in addition to the natural acid content of silage, more acid is produced when nutrients, such as starch and cellulose in the silage, are broken down into volatile fatty acid end products..........

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ROLE OF CHELATED TRACE MINERALS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION
Dairy cows are unique among farm animals in the amount of acid produced in the digestive tract and found in commonly consumed feeds. Each time dairy cows approach the feed; they expose themselves to acid from several sources. This acid can be present in the feed when consumed, or can be generated from the feed during digestion. For example, corn silage ferments during storage, yielding a pH below 4. Its acid content is very high. Therefore, consumption of silage by the cow causes rumen pH to immediately drop. Moreover, in addition to the natural acid content of silage, more acid is produced when nutrients, such as starch and cellulose in the silage, are broken down into volatile fatty acid end products..........

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ROLE OF PROGESTERONE IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION
Progestin is a substance, which converts the estrogen-primed endometrium to secretory and maintain pregnancy in animals spayed after conception.

(Progestin = Favoring pregnancy)
The most common progestin is progesterone, which is the hormone mainly responsible for nidation and maintenance of pregnancy
..........

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METABOLIC DISEASES OF DAIRY CATTLE

Dairy cattle require minerals in their diet for optimal productivity. These are derived from the feed and fodder. The input of minerals through feed and water must balance their output through faeces, urine and milk to maintain the animal's health. If the output exceeds input, the animals meet out their normal requirements by mobilization from its body reserves for a shorter period. But continuous imbalances develop into productivity related problems.

    

Nutritional imbalances, deficiencies, or erratic management of feeding programs for dairy cows can create large numbers and various types of health problems generally categorized as metabolic diseases. High producing dairy cows are most susceptible to metabolic diseases during the periparturient period..........

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ROLE OF TRACE MINERALS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION
What Do I Need to Know About Trace Minerals for
Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats?
The role of trace minerals in animal production is an area of strong interest for producers, feed manufactures, veterinarians and scientists. Adequate trace mineral intake and absorption is required for a variety of metabolic functions including immune response to pathogenic challenge, reproduction and growth. Mineral supplementation strategies quickly become complex because differences in trace mineral status of all livestock and avian species is critical in order to obtain optimum production in modern animal production systems..........

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