Aqua / Biotechnology /
increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture is
emerging as one of the most viable and promising
enterprises to provide human nutritional and food
security. But, most of the intensive aquaculture farms
are facing major hindrance due to disease outbreak, poor
growth and low survivals. To mitigate these problems,
probiotics are being used in aquaculture practices. The
use of probiotics in aquaculture not only resulted in
the reduction of use of antibiotics in the culture
systems, but also improved the appetite and/or biogrowth
performance of the farmed species in an eco-friendly and
sustainable manner (Gatesoupe 1999; Naik et al. 1999;
Robertson et al. 2000; Wang et al. 2005).
One obvious reason for the use of probiotics is that
these can be supplemented even at larval and early fry
stages (Muroga et al. 1987). Several reports suggest
that probiotics supplementation can reduce the cost of
culture by improving the growth and feed utilization
efficiency (Swain et al. 1996; Bogut et al. 1998; Ghosh
et al. 2003; Carnevali et al. 2006; Wang & Xu 2006;
Mazurkiewicz et al. 2007; Kesarcodi-Watson et al. 2008;
Sugita, H. et al. 2009; Mehdi Yousefian et al. 2009;
Zhang, Q. et al. 2010; Wang, Y, et al. 2011; K.N.
Mohanta et al. 2012).
With this proven concept in the background, Neospark is
introducing a versatile probiotic formulation QBac for
use in aquaculture. QBac is a dense Probiotic
formulation fortified with Enzymes along with
stabilizers and activators. The probiotic bacteria in
the formulation will degrade many different substrates
and do an excellent job in degrading the organic sludge
that accumulates in Shrimp and Fish ponds.
QBac acts on many diverse contaminating
substances, digesting them down into more basic
components through heterotrophic degradation that do not
interfere with the farming process, which are more
easily absorbed into the pond as well as surrounding
environment, there by improves the water quality.
QBac accelerates digestive process, formation of
stable algae and also eliminate pathogenic
micro-organisms and other undesirable substances.
QBac competes with Vibrio and other opportunistic
pathogenic bacterial species and controls their
propagation in aquaculture ponds.
QBac acts continuously there by restoring the
life of the pond and its water quality, contributing to
a better environment for the growth of Shrimp, Prawn and
Fish during the crop period.
All components in QBac are of natural origin.
Heterotrophic degradation of sludge in aquaculture ponds
QBacís multiple probiotic species act and
minimise various sludge matter by heterotrophic
degradation in aquaculture system either through aerobic
or anaerobic path way. By the aerobic path way,
probiotics of QBac use, O2 to oxidize the organic
material by a metabolism similar to that of macrofauna
and gain chemical energy. However, O2 content in the
water is poor i.e. <0.0014% when compared to 21% of
atmosphere. O2 pool is exhausted in the upper mm of
aquaculture pond sediments*. Below the oxic horizon, a
number of other oxidants become important like: NO3-,
SO42-, and CO2. Whereas in the anaerobic path way the
bacteria act without oxygen (anaerobic) on sludge and
degrade the sludge.
During the ecofriendly heterotrophic degradation
activity of QBac the organic material gradually
becomes degraded into the simple assimilable inorganic
components, which get released in to the overlying water
column where most of the plankton forms get benefited.
The vertical position of the degradation pathways at the
pond bottom sediment is mainly determined by the
chemical energy and degradation pathways are
sequentially structured as outlined below.
Healthy process of sludge degradation
process the end products are non-toxic like carbon
dioxide and nitrogen
Un-healthy process of sludge degradation
In this process the end products are toxic like ammonia
and hydrogen sulfide
NB: To maintain proper DO levels use OxyZen Pond Cake or
AOP Plus (Neospark).
Multicenter field trials were undertaken at different
commercial farm facilities using 2.5 acre grow-out
ponds. Each pond was stocked with 2,50,000 PL 15 black
tiger shrimp. A good quality and healthy SPF shrimp
juveniles were selected by PCR test. Ponds were
fortnightly assigned to standard dosage of QBac for a
crop period of 135 DOC. Sampling was done at every
fortnight for ammonia analysis, Vibrio sp. loads and
collected data on survival, weight and total biomass of
the shrimp at harvest.
The aggregate results of this study shows that QBac was
effective in controlling ammonia (Fig. 1) in shrimp
culture system and improved the overall productivity of
Fig. 1. The Ammonia levels (ppm) in control and QBac
The loads of
Vibrio sp. were effectively controlled by QBac (Fig. 2)
in shrimp culture system which indicates the increased
survival and growth (Fig. 3&4).
Fig. 2. The Vibrio sp. load (cfu/ml) in control and QBac
ponds applied with QBac were compared with
controlled ponds based upon survival, weight gain and
total biomass. Survival was increased by 18 percent (92%
versus 74%) in trial pond when compared to control (Fig.
3). Despite the high density, the final weight (Average
Body Weight) of shrimp supplemented with QBac has
also marginally increased (36 g versus 29 g) (Fig. 4).
Thus, final biomass was significantly higher in the pond
receiving QBac resulting in a 54 percent increase
in production (8280 kg versus 5365 kg) (Fig. 5). The
results from this multicenter study provided strong
indications of production benefit in application of
Fig. 3. The shrimp survival rate (%) in control and QBac
Fig. 4. The shrimp final weight (ABW) in control and
QBac trial ponds
Fig. 5. The shrimp final biomass (kg) in control and
QBac trial ponds
is to be applied regularly to maintain proper probiotic
density in aquaculture system for obtaining better
reduces ammonia and hydrogen sulfide levels
and reduces formation of sludge.
degrades all types of organic wastes in the pond like
excess feed, faecal matter,
exoskeletal moults and keeps the pond clean.
degrades all types of organic wastes in the pond like
excess feed, faecal matter, exoskeletal
moults and keeps the pond clean.
colour and pH.
survival rates and productivity.
chances of off-flavor problems.
and maintains water quality.
water exchange. Lowering pumping and fuel costs. Reduced
stress on animals.
levels of blue green algae.
Vibrio and other bacterial disease problems- Healthier
FCRs. Better management of water quality.
QBac for use in larval hatchery production
survival of larvae.
the immune system.
resistance to diseases.
rapid growth of post larvae.
A potent combination of probiotics Bacillus subtilis,
Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus
polymyxa, Bacillus pumilus, Thiobacillus denitrificans,
Perococcus denitrificans, Acetobacter and Enzymes
Protease, Amylase, Cellulase, Hemicellulase and Lipase
with stabilizers and activators.
based on stocking density and days of culture (DOC)
Shrimp and Fish Hatchery:
30-50 gm/10 ton of water
or as advised by Aquaculture Consultant.
Mode of application
Mix required quantity of QBac in around 50 liters
of clean water from the same pond/hatchery tank and keep
it for one hour before application to activate
probiotics in the formulation. Broadcast the activated
QBac throughout the pond/ hatchery tank and
aerate the pond for better uniform distribution.